“History repeats itself, that’s one of the things that’s wrong with history.” -Clarence Darrow

Articles written by Dr. Sazawal are catalogued under following groupings:

1. Articles published by the Outlook (New Delhi) and other journals

a. The Kashmiri Pandit Conundrun– Published: 14 February 2016 (Kashmir Ink: 1 April 2016)

Can Kashmiri Muslims living in the valley handle the truth? That is the challenge faced today by Kashmiri intellectuals, media and civil society who are keen on “levelizing” the human suffering and tragedy that has befallen Kashmir. While there is no question that the tragedy has affected all sections of the society, there should be absolutely no question that a peaceful minority of Kashmiri Pandits have fared the worst. Kashmiri Pandits, aborigines of Kashmir, were terrorized and forced to flee from Kashmiri in 1989-1990 because they were condemned as infidels and yet the majority community in the valley maintains its scrupulous state of denial about its communal culture that continues to resist the return of Pandits today. (This article was subsequently published in Kashmir Ink, Greater Kashmir)

b. Resolving the Kashmir Conundrum: A Way Forward – Published: 11 September 2013

The Author was invited to give a lecture in the Palace of Westminster (British Parliament) on September 11, 2013 at a 3-hour meeting chaired by the Rt. Hon’ble Marcus Jones, a Tory MP and a close associate of the British Prime Minister David Cameron, who is a member of the British Parliamentary Committee (BPC) on Kashmir. The Rt. Hon’ble Andrew Griffiths, who is the Chairperson of the BPC also participated briefly. According to the author, the Kashmir issue has evolved. It has no bearing to the dispute that was brought to the attention of the United Nations. It needs a solution in today’s context.

c. American Policy and Kashmir Dispute – Published: 27 July 2012

The official U.S. views regarding the Kashmir dispute have remained unchanged for decades. Nevertheless separatists, some media outlets, and other related constituencies in the Kashmir valley continually re-interpret the U.S. position on the issue with pronouncements that are based on wild imagination rather than cold reality.

d. The Kashmir Conundrum (Published by the Greater Kashmir) – Published: 8 January 2011

When neither politicians nor intellectuals pass the muster of professional integrity, it is not surprising that the Kashmir issue remains unresolved.

e. The Boiled Frog –  Published: 19 July 2010

The slow erosion of plurality, secularism and shrinking political and economic space for the disfranchised has created the situation that exists in Pakistan today. Kashmir seems to be slowly but surely headed the same way.

f. The Shopian Tragedy: Triumph of Politics Over Truth –  Published: 1 September 2009

The “Shopian Incident” involving deaths of two young women in Shopian is very serious and very tragic. Unfortunately, actions by police, doctors and family members following the mysterious deaths have only deepened the mystery. Last, but not the least, political operatives managing public sentiment have compounded the problem further with unsubstantiated charges. Justice can not be served until the truth is known, but public and media seem to have made up their minds. The author conducts a thorough investigation of known facts to date.

g. Jammu V/s Kashmir – Published: 07 August 2008

How a simple administrative matter was mishandled and how competitive politics led it to snowball into a violent stand-off, unleashing dangerous communal passions.

h. The ‘Self-Governance’ Bogey – Published: 22 August 2006

If General Musharraf’s model is Northern Areas or even ‘Azad Jammu & Kashmir’, he ought to first check with Pakistan’s own Supreme Court to learn the lack of self-governance in those regions of Kashmir.

i. Beyond White Noise – Published: 15 February 2006

The Mirwaiz had publicly sought the return of the Pandits to the valley. But “meet and greet” functions do not a political dialogue make. The road map and benefits of such a dialogue need to be defined properly.

j. A Tragedy Without An End – Published: 12 July 2005

Today, the role of mujahideen in propping up a miniscule separatist movement in J&K is acknowledged even by those who were its organisers but, sadly, ten years later I wonder if we will ever learn from history

k. The Final Solution – Published: 15 March 2005

The shift to a people-centric approach from the real estate aspect of the problem is welcome indeed, and since all politics is local, it is high time to shift the focus from macro to micro issues. The majority community in J&K, not merely the governments, bears the burden of addressing the issue of Kashmiri Pandits and other minorities.

l. Musharraf’s Remarkable New Journey – Published: 24 January 2004

General Musharraf is smart. No one disputes that. But how long can he survive in a turbulent land called Pakistan where everyone from the military to mujahideen (armies of Allah) say one thing and do another? A snapshot of the “defender of the supreme national interest” following two unsuccessful assassination attempts on his life.

m. A Question Of Arrogance – Published: 16 March 2004

…of a very special people who want one set rules for themselves and a different set of rules for others. Kashmiri women be damned. They have suffered in silence in the past and they will continue to suffer in the future.

n. Platform For Reprisals – Published: 25 January 2003

Nancy Powell’s speech in Karachi, calling Pakistan a ‘platform for terrorism’ was remarkable for its candour, plainspeak and, perhaps, a friendly warning.

o. Great Power Or Great Pity? – Published: 25 November 2002

India simply does not have the streak of irrationality and brute mentality necessary to become a great power in historical terms. What Indians are capable of is gathering “sympathy cards” from other great powers.

p. The American Line Of Control – Published: 24 May 2002

Since American and Indian interests don’t converge, what are India’s options?. Perhaps the “Clinton option” that relied on his uncanny sense of what people wanted on a particular day?

q. The Political Education Of Hurriyat – Published: 02 April 2002

Looking back at a March 1997 article that provides important perspective on the current happenings in the valley.

r. Dialogue Over Diatribe? – Written: 04 February 2002

What explains Hurriyat’s dramatic gesture on Jan 28, that it will “conduct a phased election of its own on both sides of the LOC?

s. Indian Hawks And The American Plan – Published :14 January 2002

The American President and his entire security apparatus do not generally welcome and make time for second-tier leaders. So what explains the special treatment for hardliners and known anti-Americans?

t. Framework For Peace In Kashmir – Published: 27 June 2001

Is it an international or a religious problem? One involving self-seeking politicians? Of a piece of real estate? Or a problem of the people and their aspirations? A Kashmiri perspective.

u. The Encounter in Agra – Published: 02 September 2001

The article describes how Pakistan nearly achieved a great political victory at the 2001 Vajpayee – Musharraf summit on the heels of a military defeat at Kargil


2. Articles addressing inter-Community dialogue on the presumption that all politics is local

a.  A Discussion on Stalemate in Kashmir – Published 21 March 2021

The text of the author’s video speech in an intercommunity dialogue between Kashmiri Muslims and Pandits in a webinar arranged by the Wolur TV (U.K.). The author is of the opinion that Kashmiri Muslims were surprised by the actions taken by the Indian Parliament in August 2019 regarding the revocation of the Article 370 and 35A because the majority community in the valley is so immersed in its own isolated bubble that it is impervious to the polity of India. Taking its cues from Pakistan and  various imaginary global conspiracies related to Kashmir involving the  United Nations (UN) and the major powers, Kashmiri Muslim intelligentsia had convinced itself that India is incapable of changing the political architecture of the State on its own.

The author has for the last decade made a common point at various seminars on Kashmir that the situation is Kashmir was becoming so untenable for the Union of India that it was only a matter of time before the political leadership in New Delhi would step in and make some extra-ordinary changes to prevent Kashmir from becoming another Chechnya. The change eventually occurred by two momentous Indian Parliamentary resolutions on 5-6 August 2019.

Some changes made in the governance of the former state are practically irrevocable. But the Union Territory can revert back to a State when certain criteria are met. These are mentioned in my lecture.

To read the text of author’s presentation, please click here:

The Presentation mentions 4 slides taken from an author’s presentation made in 2012. That presentation can be accessed here:

To view the webinar on Facebook click here.

b. A Solemn Remembrance of a Night in Infamy Published: 19 January 2020

Author’s video speech at a meeting organized by the Indo-European Kashmir Forum (IEKF), in U.K. marking the 30th anniversary of the forced exile/Exodus of the Pandit minority from their ancestral homeland, Kashmir. In attendance was the Rt. Hon. Marcus Jones, MP. Mr. Jones is the Assistant Whip of the ruling Conservative Party in the U.K. Parliament headed by the Prime Minister Mr. Boris Johnson.

A new phase of wanton harassment and violence against Pandits began in February 1986 when a number of Hindu temples and hundreds of Pandit homes were destroyed by arson in the Southern district of Anantnag in Kashmir. The culprits from the majority Muslim community were provoked by local politicians. The violence against Pandits escalated after the first batch of trained Islamic terrorists returned from Pakistan. First targeted killings of Pandits took place in 1987, followed by gruesome incidents of violence involving rapes and murders of community leaders. But if there were any lingering doubts in the fearful minority about their safety and security, all those doubts were laid to rest on the night of January 19, 1990.

c. Creating A Welcome Space for Kashmiri Pandits in the Valley Published: 26 September 2012

The publicity machine of the Chief Minister hailed the meeting that Mr. Omar Abdullah held with a group of Kashmiri Pandits on 18th September 2012 in Srinagar, describing the meeting in glowing terms and re-affirming Mr. Abdullah’s pledge that the “Government will do whatever possible for their return and rehabilitation.” An English daily in Srinagar, in an editorial on 20th September, noted that J&K Government efforts so far have amounted to “mere lip service.” The 18th September meeting was actually a disaster. Here is why.

d. Pakistanization of Kashmir Published: 16 July 2010

When a prominent pro-separatist newspaper in Srinagar issued a statement under the heading Introspect on 15th July, it merely confirmed a growing concern among Kashmiris that the valley is headed towards anarchy. Without clear goals for incessant protests and strikes, the opposition leaders (from Islamist-separatist groups to pro-India parties out of power) are steering the valley to economic ruin without securing any tangible results in return. At the same time, a weak ruling coalition government is unable to control the law and order situation and instead conveys confusing messages intended to obfuscate the seriousness of the ground situation in the valley. If it sounds a bit like the situation in Pakistan, it actually is.

e. The Role of Civil Society in Kashmir Published 30 April 2009

Civil society plays a critical role in nation building and human development. Local societal issues in Kashmir, unrelated to regional politics, cannot not be subsumed or ignored until the Kashmir problem is resolved. The civil society in Kashmir faces a challenge in reorienting its agenda to address a wide spectrum of local issues and thereby enhance its appeal and relevance to various sections of the society.

f. The True Meaning of KashmiriyatPublished 6 January 2009

Invited paper submitted for inclusion in Professor Fida M. Hassnain’s upcoming book on Kashmiriyat. The author provides a historical perspective of crucial events that have shaped Kashmir’s unique identity which is under a severe strain today.

g. Conflict, Human Rights and the Rule of Law in Kashmir – Published: 19 September 2008

Presentation at a meeting organized by the Interfaith International on the sidelines of the ninth session of the United Nations (UN) Human Rights Council in Geneva.

h.  An Imperfect Storm: The Summer 2008 Uprising in Kashmir – Published: 19 July 2008

Unlike the sustained uprising in Kashmir in 1990 which was mostly orchestrated by Pakistani trained operatives, the uprising in the summer of 2008 was mostly indigenous, spontaneous and massive. Yet it began and died after ten days of bloody upheaval under rather strange circumstances. What prevented the latest insurgency from becoming a “perfect storm?” The author conducts a post-mortem of the uprising.

i.  Presentation on the Kashmir Dispute at the Institute for Conflict Analysis and Resolution – Published: 08 November 2007

Presentation at the Institute for Conflict Analysis and Resolution during the conference entitled “The Role of the International Community In Resolving the Kashmir Dispute”, George Mason University, Virginia, USA.

j.  Economic Pathways to Normalization in Kashmir– Published: 20 July 2004

A critical review of past, present and future choices during a speech by Dr. Sazawal at the US Institute for Peace (USIP) in Washington, DC.

k. CBMs: Help or Hindrance for Resolving Kashmir Conflict? – Published: 24 February 2005

Text of speech delivered at the International Kashmir Peace Conference entitled “Peace Initiative in South Asia: Exploring Possible Options for Kashmir”, organized by the Kashmiri American Council, (KAC) held in New York City on February 24-25, 2005.

l.  The Kashmir Dispute and Building a Peaceful South Asia – Published: 14 July 2005

Text of Dr. Sazawal’s speech at the Kashmiri American Council (KAC) seminar hosted in Washington, D.C.

m. Can the Youth Succeed if Elders Have Failed Them? – Published: 9 August 2005

Kashmiri youth face many challenges today. Apart from traditional challenges faced by the younger generation in any society, Kashmiri youth have to bear the undue burden of growing in a culture of violence and fractured civil order. Even more debilitating is the euphoria in the civil society for role models who have done nothing to merit recognition other than create mayhem and disorder. In effect, parenting has taken on a whole new meaning in today’s Kashmir.

n. Human Security for Kashmiri Pandits – Published: 21 April 2004

The author was approached by certain Kashmiri Muslim participants attending the United Nations Human Rights Council (UNHRC) session in Geneva on April 8, 2004 seeking his views regarding the return of displaced Kashmiri Pandits for publication in an English periodical published in Srinagar. The following is an abbreviated version of the paper provided to the publisher.

o. A Symmetrical Inter-constitutent Dialogue – Published: 22 April 2002

A letter sent to the U.S. government officials in the National Security Council (NSC) and the State Department following interactions with Kashmiri Muslims in Geneva and a meeting with a senior Pakistani official in Washington, DC. The letter identifies key human rights and political issues on both sides of the divided Jammu and Kashmir, and proposes concurrent inter-comunity dialogue on both sides with specific goals to establish consensus positions for future negotiations with India and Pakistan.

p. Communication Exchange with PRIO, Norway – Published: 27 May 2002

The feedback from the U.S. government to the author’s proposal for a “Symmetrical Inter-constituent Dialogue” (as noted in the earlier article), resulted in an interesting exchange with a world famous peace and conflict resolution think tank called, “International Peace Research Institute, Oslo (PRIO)” based in Norway. The director of PRIO found author’s proposal for a political dialogue worthy of follow-up but indicated a need for budgetary support to initiate such a dialogue.

q. The Fall And Rise Of Farooq Abdullah – Published: 01 October 1996

On June 20. 1994 Dr. Farooq Abdullah, the erstwhile chief minister of the state of Jammu and Kashmir. and I were invited by the Jammu & Kashmir Peace Committee to speak at a function held in the British Parliament with Sir Gerard Vaughan, MP presiding.

3. Presentations at the United Nations in Geneva
Presentation at a meeting organized by the Interfaith International on the sidelines of the ninth session of the United Nations (UN) Human Rights Council in Geneva.

a. Conflict, Human Rights and the Rule of Law in Kashmir – Published: 19 September 2008

b. Second United Nations Human Rights Council Meeting in Geneva – Published: 28 September 2006

“Self-Determination and Self-Governance in Kashmir” — text of speech delivered by the author at the newly re-organized UNHRC’s second meeting in Geneva.

c. Intervention in the Second Session of the United Nations Human Rights Council held in Geneva – Published: 27 September 2006.

Intervention by the author on Agenda Item 2 dealing with global poverty during the Second Session of the Human Rights Council Session (18 September 2006 – 6 October 2006).

d. Integration of Human Development with Improved Relations in South Asia – Published: 10 January 2005.

The following written Statement was submitted to the United Nations Commission on Human Rights (UNCHR) for review and discussion ahead of the 61st session of the Commission in April 2005. The designated document number is E/CN.4/2005/NGO/134 dated March 3, 2005.

e. Commission on Human Rights Fifty-seventh Session in Geneva – Published: 11 April 2001

Agenda Item 13: Rights of the Child Intervention by Vijay K. Sazawal

f. FIRST EVER Press Conference by Kashmiri Pandits from the Premises of the United Nations in Geneva, Switzerland – Published 14 February 1994
The author arranged a press conference with the correspondents accredited with the United Nations Human Rights Commission, now called the United Nations Human Rights Council (UNHRC), in Geneva on February 14, 1994.

To view a select set of archival records from that visit by the author to the UNHRC, please click here

4. Speeches in the U.S. Congress, the British Parliament and at various South Asia Policy think tanks

a. Self Determination Movement in Jammu & Kashmir (1947-1948) – Published 28 February 2021

The author presents a totally different perspective on the genesis of the self-determination movement in Jammu and Kashmir. Based on information gleaned from the recently declassified documents related to the independence of India by the British Foreign and Commonwealth Office (FCO), the author makes a strong case that the origins of the self-determination movement came from the Western powers and especially the United Kingdom. The author identifies the British “mastermind” behind this effort that led to the UNSC Resolution 47 of 1948.

The presentation was made in a webinar organized by the Indo-European Kashmir Forum (IEKF) in U.K. The keynote speaker at the event was Rt. Hon. Bob Blackman, Member of the British Parliament.

To read the text of author’s presentation, please click here:

To view the webinar on YouTube: Click Here

b. The Western Obsession with Kashmir – Published: 11 February 2020

Video of remarks made by the author at a meeting organized by The Foundation for India and Indian Diaspora Studies USA (FIIDS) in Virginia

c. The Limits of Influence: America’s Role in Kashmir – Published: 4 June 2009

d. Self-governance and Trans-nationalism in Kashmir – Published: 10 August 2006

e. Kashmir Earthquake: Waiting For The Next Jolt – Published: 15 December 2005

Counterpoint to Mr. Yasin Malik, Chairman of the JKLF, on the Kashmir issue at the United States Institute of Peace (USIP) in Washington, DC.

f. Recovering Pluralism and Citizenship in Kashmir: Possible Solutions – Published: 14 April 2005

Remarks delivered at the School of Advanced International Studies (SAIS) at The Johns Hopkins University, as summarized by the Henry L. Stimson Center, the only Washington D.C. think tank with an active program for Confidence Building Measures in South Asia.

g. South Asian Security and US Policy Management – Published: 20 May 2004

Speech delivered at the National Advisory Council on South Asian Affairs (NACSAA) event at the Cosmos Club in Washington, DC. The meeting consisted of South Asian born policy experts, Washington Think Tanks, and U.S. State Department officials

h. The Challenge in South Asia – Published: 5 April 2002

Speech made at the annual meeting of the National Advisory Council on South Asian Affairs (NACSAA) in Washington, DC.

i. The Problem of Jammu and Kashmir – Published: 3 April 2002

Presentation to the Kashmir Task Force of the U.S. – India Caucus in the U.S. House of Representatives in Washington, DC.

j. Choices in Kashmir – Published: 18 April 2001

Counterpoint to Mr. Yasin Malik, Chairman of the JKLF, during the Kashmir Discussion Series at the Center for Strategic and International Studies (CSIS) in Washington, DC.

k. Kashmir: Is There A Chance For Peace? – Published: 12 December 2000

Panel Discussion on Kashmir, International Center for Religion and Diplomacy (ICRD) in Washington, DC

l. The Kashmir Autonomy Resolution And India’s Integrity – Published: 12 October 2000

Conference on South Asian Politics University of Wisconsin, Madison, USA

m. Violence Against Kashmiri Hindus (Pandits) – Published: 18 September 2000

Prepared testimony for the Hearings on Religious Freedom in India and Pakistan, held by the United States Commission on International Religious Freedom (USCIRF), www.uscirf.gov, a bipartisan government body composed of twelve appointed commissioners who file reports with the U.S. government on issues pertaining to international religious freedom around the world.

n. Opening Remarks at a Bipartisan Capitol Hill Meeting – Published: 28 June 1995

The opening remarks made on behalf of IAKF at a bipartisan breakfast meeting on the Capitol Hill in Washington, DC

To review the meeting announcement (flyer) for the event, please click here

o. Resolving the Kashmir Issue: A Kashmiri Perspective – Published: 20 June 1994

This paper was presented in the British Parliament on June 20, 1994 when Dr. Sazawal was invited to speak along with Dr. Farooq Abdullah.

p. Statement to the U.S. Congressional Human Rights Caucus – Published: 03 August 1992

The maiden speech and participation by U.S. based Pandit activists in an event organized by the U.S. Congress on the Capitol Hill. Both the Indo-American Kashmir Forum (IAKF) and the U.S.organization that represents Kashmiri separatists were invited to testify. Official records indicated that Kashimiri separatists had hired a prominent Washington lobbying firm named Black, Manafort and Kelly to assist in their campaign at a cost of $500,000 per 6 months (payable in advance), whereas IAKF directors were professionals with regular jobs and no lobbying experience.

IAKF testimony included a letter from the President of the All India Kashmiri Samaj (AIKS) to the United Nation’s General Secretary, Dr. Boutros Ghali, dated April 23, 1992. We also provided a list of the first 100 Pandits martyred in Kashmir from 1988 to April 1990.

q. Speech delivered at the National Advisory Council on South Asian Affairs (NACSAA) event at the Cosmos Club in Washington, DC. The meeting consisted of South Asian born policy experts, Washington Think Tanks, and U.S. State Department officials.

The Brookings Institution Press has just published Ambassador Howard Schaffer’s valuable treatise on historical American engagement on the Kashmir dispute. Ambassador Schaffer held numerous meetings with the author while the book was being written, and discussed various aspects of the issue involving Kashmiri Pandits. The release of the book provided an opportunity to the Brookings South Asia Program to host Ambassador Schaffer and a select group of South Asia policy experts for an informal discussion to explore options, if any, for a fresh American approach to resolving the dispute. To check the attendee list, as well as Ambassador Schaffer’s personal remarks about the author, please click here.

There was an unanimous view among attendees that direct U.S. involvement was neither needed nor necessary. Both India and Pakistan are, in fact, in the process of reconnecting on both Track-I and Track-II levels, but the key question remains whether or not Pakistan is willing to dismantle its terror infrastructure geared towards India in general, and Kashmir in particular. Various possible incentives to encourage Pakistan to shift its military priorities from Kashmir-centric focus to its western border and tackle its internal strife were also discussed.

5. Speeches and Presentations to Kashmiri Pandit Audiences

a. The Oral History of Activism by Overseas KP Diaspora following the Exodus, 1990 – 2000: Published 23 January 2021

A community media platform in India, “Kath Bath,” organized a webinar to highlight challenges before overseas Kashmiri Pandit (KP) organizations during the post-exodus period. The author, as the International Coordinator of the overseas diaspora KP forums took the opportunity to present a comprehensive oral history of advocacy and activism pursued by the Kashmiri Pandits based in the USA following the expulsion of KP’s from their motherland in 1989-1990. The video history highlights how the Kashmiri Overseas Association (KOA) galvanized the overseas KP diaspora into action after overcoming initial hindrances, resulting in the formation of the Indo-American Kashmir Forum (IAKF), as well as its sister organizations, the Indo-European Kashmir Forum (IEKF), based in U.K. and Europe, and the Indo-Canadian Kashmir Forum (ICKF).

This video is an oral history of US based KP’s in the first decade following the exodus of KPs from 1990 to 2000. The advocacy continues to the day, but to keep the presentation short and focused, only main highlights of the first decade are mentioned. It is nearly an hour long and therefore requires time and patience to view it. It may interest mostly those who wish to know about the historical genesis of KP advocacy in the U.S. starting from a blank sheet of paper and ending up with modest successes by the end of the first decade following the exodus of KP’s from their ancestral lands. While such recordings tend to be personal thoughts and never can be deemed as complete records, they nevertheless shine lights on major events and accomplishments of the overseas diaspora.

To view the video from the webinar, please click here

To view the contributions made by the ICKF and IEKF based activists in Ottawa, Toronto, London, and Geneva, please check out the Facebook link by clicking here

The Facebook video includes presentations from all THREE organizations.

To view the “Kath Bath” poster, please click here

To read brief notes from the webinar, please click here

b. Those who Stayed BackPublished 4 July 2020

This opinion piece addresses the fate of the “forgotten Pandits” who did not flee the valley when terrorists and militants were violently ravaging the lands with executions, mass murders and rapes. The author describes their plight and acknowledges their singular role in ensuring continuity of the 5,000 year old Pandit culture and ethos in Kashmir.

c. Analysis of Census Data regarding Pandit Families living in the Valley 2009-2010Published: June 2010

The attached analysis is based on the raw census data collected by the Kashmiri Pandit Sangarsh Samiti (KPSS), a valley based group, and subsequently investigated by the author. It has been provided to the Prime Minister’s Office (PMO) and to the Group of Interlocutors for Jammu & Kashmir in New Delhi on 23 March 2011.

d. Political Update: Kashmir – Published: 27 March 2008

There is always politics in the air where the State of Jammu and Kashmir (Kashmir for short) is concerned. But certain recent events have put a new spin on the old game of what is brewing next in Kashmir. This article appears in the April 2008 issue of the “Shehjar”, the on-line journal published by the community.

e. Protecting Kashmiri Ethos by Preserving Pandit Identity in the Valley. – Published: 10 February 2008

The “Vision Statement” emanating from a Roundtable discussion on preserving Kashmiri Pandit (KP) identity in the Kashmir valley. The meeting was organized by activists from KP community of Northern California to which the author was invited. The meeting took place in the San Jose Hindu Temple on February 10, 2008.

f. So you do not want to return permanently to Kashmir, what’s next? – Published: 31 December 2007

The author addresses future options for Kashmiri Pandits in the 31 December 2007 issue of the “Shehjar”, the on-line journal published by the community.

g. Ushering New Hope For Disfranchised Kashmiri Pandit Refugees – Published: 30 April 2006

Presentation at the Kashmir Secular Alliance (KSA) Seminar on April 30, 2006 in Jammu, J&K

h. Towards a Self-Reliant Pandit Community – Published: 15 August 2005

Internal perspective on the Kashmiri Pandit community, presented at the Chandigarh (India) meeting of the All India Kashmiri Samaj (AIKS) on 4th September 2005.

i. A New Focus, a New Vision – Published: 16 January 2000

A historical perspective on Kashmiri Pandits published in the Kashmiri Samiti Delhi (KSD) monthly journal, “Koshur Samachar”, New Delhi, April 2000

j. The Politics of the Internally Displaced – Published: 28 January 1999

Kashmiri Pandits being recognized as Internally Displaced by various agencies of the United Nations Human Rights Council (UNHRC) was relatively easy. Creating political sophistication in Pandits to take advantage of such recognition is however an entirely different matter. The following commentary published in the Daily Excelsior, a major daily newspaper in J&K, decribes the first visit by a UNHRC representative to Pandit refugee camps in 1998.

k. Kashmiri Pandits Demand A Homeland – Published: 01 January 1996

The year is 1492. King Ferdinand of Spain has given the Jews of Spain a choice – either convert to christianity or leave the country. Some 200,000 Jews flee for their lives. Half a world away, in Kashmir, the Kashmiri Pandits (KPs) are faring no better. Update of the essay originally written in 1993.

l. A Strategy Document for Panun Kashmir (1993) – Published: 10 May 1993

At the request of the original core team heading the Panun Kashmir organization in Jammu (J&K), the author prepared a 1-page strategy document for an executive discussion in May 1993. While some elements of the strategy were eventually implemented, most were not as the core team split up and various factions pursued obfuscating goals. The author, who served as the first overseas coordinator of Panun Kashmir, resigned from the organization in 1996. The document was a template for creation of a political entity that remains the unrealized dream of Kashmiri Pandits even now.

m. Understanding World Geopolitics & Its Impact On Kashmir – Published: 22 February 1992

This article describes sweeping changes taking place around the world as a result of the demise of the soviet empire and the emergence of radical Islam, and both factors have serious implications on peace and security in Jammu and Kashmir

6. Archival Records including Correspondence With Various Governments, Civil Society and Advocacy Groups in the U.S., Europe, and India

a. A Symmetrical Inter-constitutent Dialogue – Published: 22 April 2002

A letter sent to the U.S. government officials in the National Security Council (NSC) and the State Department following interactions with Kashmiri Muslims in Geneva and a meeting with a senior Pakistani official in Washington, DC. The letter identifies key human rights and political issues on both sides of the divided Jammu and Kashmir, and proposes concurrent inter-comunity dialogue on both sides with specific goals to establish consensus positions for future negotiations with India and Pakistan.

b. Communication Exchange with PRIO, Norway – Published: 27 May 2002

The feedback from the U.S. government to the author’s proposal for a “Symmetrical Inter-constituent Dialogue” (as noted in the earlier article), resulted in an interesting exchange with a world famous peace and conflict resolution think tank called, “International Peace Research Institute, Oslo (PRIO)” based in Norway. The director of PRIO found author’s proposal for a political dialogue worthy of follow-up but indicated a need for budgetary support to initiate such a dialogue.

c. Letter to the Chairman of J&K State Autonomy Committee – Published: 21 January 1997

d. Letter to and Response from the New York Times newspaper on Anantnag Communal riots in February 1986 – Published: 10 March 1986

e. Letter to the Indian Prime Minister following a private meeting at his official residence on January 18, 2006 – Published: 27 January 2006

f. Memorandum presented to the Indian Prime Minister during a meeting in Washington, DC on November 25, 2009 – Published: 24 November 2006

g. Memorandum presented to the Indian Defense Minister (Raksha Mantri) during a meeting in Washington, DC on September 26, 2010 – Published: 26 September 2010

7. Important Archival Records Pertaining to Kashmir and Kashmiri Pandits
  1. The Parliament of India, Rajya Sabha, Two Hundred Thirty Fifth (No. 235) Report on Actions Taken by Government on the Recommendations/Observations Contained in the Two Hundred Thirty First Report on Demands for Grants (2021-2022) of the Ministry of Home Affairs – Published: 10 December 2021 – Under Section 3.5 the report describes the status of Relief and Rehabilitation for Kashmir Migrants and Repatriates, highlighting specific Past Recommendations, Action Taken, and Further Recommendations/Observations (New).
  2. NEW Indian Parliament Report on Rehabilitation of Displaced Kashmiri Pandits: Action Taken Report (ATR) by the Government on Recommendations Contained in the 137th Report of the Parliament of India – Published: 19 February 2014 – The Subcommittee of the Parliament of India on Action Taken on the 137th Report on Rehabilitation of displaced Kashmiri Pandits (issued on February 13, 2009, and listed under item e above) was Chaired by Shri M. Venkaiah Naidu (Rajya Sabha), with Shri Rajiv Pratap Rudy (Rajya Sabha) and Shri Naveen Jindal (Lok Sabha) as Co-Convenors. The 179th Report of the Parliament was presented to the Rajya Sabha on February 19, 2014, and laid on the table of the Lok Sabha on the same date.For the full report, please click here.
  3. Letter from the Chairman of the National Commission for Minorities (NCM) to the J&K Government on granting minority status to religious and ethnic minorities within J&K – Published: 7 September 2011 – Shri Wajahat Habibullah, Chairman of the NCM has written to Shri Ali Mohammad Sagar, the Law Minister, J&K Government, and recommended that the J&K State consider extension of NCM Act 1992 to the State of J&K. by making a recommendation to the President that an amendment be made to the NCM Act 1992 to make the Act applicable to the State of J&K.To read the letter, click here
  4. The Jammu and Kashmir Right to Information (RTI) Act, 2009 – Published: 20 March 2009 – The new RTI Act was passed by the J&K Legislative Assembly on March 9, 2009, and a few days later was approved by the Legislative Council. The Act upon the consent of the Governor on March, 20, 2009 is now a state law.The RTI Act has five (5) Chapters. Chapter I, titled “Preliminary,” describes key definitions used in the Act. Chapter II, titled “Right to Information and Obligations of Public Authorities,” describes the kind of information made available under the Act, and the process that public must follow to gain access to information of interest. Chapter III, titled, “The State Information Commission,” describes the structure and make up of the State Information Commission (SIC) responsible for implementing the Act. Chapter IV, titled, “Powers and Functions of the Information Commission, Appeal and Penalties,” describes SIC’s authority in ensuring the law is followed openly and fairly, and the appeals process available to public for redressing grievances. Chapter V, titled, “Miscellaneous,” describes certain restrictions on accessing information involving national security, and describes monitoring and reporting requirements under the Act.The RTI Act consists of 32 pages. First 15 pages, consisting of Chapters I and II, can be accessed by clicking below. The full text of the Act is available on the J&K Government website.For Chapters I and II of the J&K RTI Act of 2009, click here
  5. Indian Parliament Report on Rehabilitation of Displaced Kashmiri Pandits – Published: 13 February 2009 – The Department Related Parliamentary Standing Committee on Home Affairs constituted a Sub-Committee on Civil Defense and Rehabilitation of Jammu &Kashmir Internally Displaced People (“Migrants”) on April 13, 2007. Members of the Sub-Committee are (as of May 26, 2008) the following members of Parliament: S. S. Ahluwalia (Jharkhand), R. C. Khuntia (Orissa), S. C. Misra (Uttar Pradesh), Sachin Pilot (Rajasthan), and Sangeeta Kumari Singh Deo (Orissa). The report was presented to the Rajya Sabha on February 13, 2009, and laid on the table of the Lok Sabha on the same date.For the Full Report click hereFor Summary and Conclusions of the report click here
  6. Response from the J&K Government to the official report on valley based Pandits written by Mr. Wajahat Habibullah – Published: 16 December 2009 – Mr. G. M. Rather, Special Secretary to the Revenue Department, J&K Government, sent a letter dated 16 December 2009 to the Union Home Ministry in New Delhi, responding to key recommendations of the Habibullah Report dated 7 July 2008.
  7. Presentation of two reports on status of Kashmiri Pandits still resident in the Valley to the Chief Minister, J&K – 8 January 2009 – Two inter-related reports on the welfare and needs of Kashmiri Pandits that continue to live in the valley – one written by the author following his trip to the valley in December 2006, and the other by Mr. Wajahat Habibullah, the present Chief Information Commissioner (CIC), Government of India, dated July 2008 – were presented to the new Chief Minister of Jammu and Kashmir, Mr. Omar Abdullah, in the Hari Niwas, Srinagar, on January 8, 2009.
  8. Jammu & Kashmir Government order restraining Sale and Purchase of land belonging to Religious Institutions of Kashmiri Pandits in Kashmir Valley – Published: 16 April 2008 – J&K Government passed an order that any future sales of any Shrine property by its management must be approved by a Deputy Commissioner (DC) before a Tehsildar implements any changes in a legal deed. The directive also directs DC’s to review past sales involving Shrine properties.
  9. The Kashmiri Hindu Shrines and Religious Places (Management and Regulation) Bill, 2008, as published: in the Jammu & Kashmir Government Gazette – Published: 9 January 2008The proposed Bill, however,was not introduced in the Budget Session 2008 of the J&K Legislative Assembly as was promised and no explanation is forthcoming from the J&K Government.
8. In Appreciation
  1. Memories of an Ordinary Man Who Lived an Extraordinary Life – Published: 20 October 2005A remembrance of a man with humble beginnings whose vision far exceeded his geographically small world constrained by family traditions and Kashmir’s culture of sycophancy. The author recalls the life and times of his late father to an audience of young people in Kashmir.
  2. Dad’s Recipe for Happy and Healthy Living – Published: 1 January 1999Author offers worldly advice to his children, embellishing on a “motto” that author’s grandfather handed to him during one of the family visits to Kashmir.



Gulmarg in Winter

Chatti Padshah Gurudwara


Shankaracharya Temple

Shiv Temple located on the ancient Jyeshteshwar shrine built by King Sandhiman (2605 – 2540 B.C.), reconstructed by King Gopadiyta in 367 B.C., and refurbished by King Jalaukasa in 200 B.C. Named after the famous Hindu philosopher Adi Shankaracharya who visited the temple in early 9th Century A.D.

harwan tiles12

Terracotta from Harwan

The town of Harwan, located 18 kilometers from Srinagar, was a flourishing Buddhist sanctuary during the Kushan period (2nd to 4th Century). The name of the town is a contraction of “Shadarhadvana”, meaning “Grove of the Six Saints”. The great Buddhist Council that reconciled 18 different schools of Buddhism was held in Harwan. The terracotta tile was most probably produced during the reign of King Huvishk in the late 2nd Century, who also founded Huvishkapura near the current town of Baramula.